Ringworm(tinea infections) is a common fungal infection of the skin.
Various fungi, depending on their location on the body, cause ringworm. Although the term is misleading, it is not caused by an actual worm but by fungi on the skin, also known as dermatophytes. First, let’s look at this infection’s causes, symptoms, treatment and prevention.
What is tinea corporis (ringworms)?
Ringworm or dermatophytosis, or tinea infection, is a fungal skin infection.
The name ringworm is due to the shape of the lesion caused by this fungal infection that resembles a worm in the form of a ring.
Tinea infection can affect humans and animals both. The lesion looks like scaly patches and discolored patches on the affected areas. These patches can appear red on lighter skin or brownish on darker skin.
It is typically used to describe tinea corporis (ringworm of the body) or tinea capitis (ringworm of the scalp). However, it’s sometimes used to describe tinea infection in other locations, such as tinea cruris (ringworm of the groin).
There is a possibility that ringworm can spread from one area of the body to another.
Regions of the body commonly affected include:
What causes ringworm in humans?
There are different species of fungi that can cause ringworm. These fungi can live on your skin or reside on other surfaces, specifically damp areas. They can survive as spores in the soil for an extended period.
The fungi can be transmitted to humans in four different ways:
- Human to human. You can catch the infection by coming in contact with a person who has ringworm or if you share personal items to use, including combs or towels. The disease is spread among children by sharing articles sheltering the fungus.
- Object to human. Fungi typically thrive in cold, damp environments. Coming in contact with a contaminated surface can make you catch this fungal infection.
- Animal to human. You can get ringworm after touching an infected animal. If the animal has come in contact with specific items and you feel those, you can get tinea corporis. Cats and dogs are well-known sources, but several animals can also spread the fungi.
- Soil to humans. Humans or animals can get ringworm after direct contact with the ground with fungi spores.
What Are the Symptoms?
Symptoms can vary depending on the site of the infection. In case of a skin infection, the following symptoms may occur:
- itchy skin
- scaly patches that are red, brown, or grey
- a round, circular pattern rash or red circle rash
- raised areas of skin called plaques
- patches resembling a ring with darker colour on the outside
- patches with well-defined and raised edges
- multiple overlapping rings
- loss of hair
Most common types of tinea infections
The appearance of ringworm may vary depending on which part of the body is infected depending on the location of the body that different names know the fungal infection.
The most common ringworm tinea types include the following:
Athlete’s foot (Tinea pedis)
This condition is the ringworm infection of the foot, typically affecting teen and adult males. Sweating, wearing tight socks and shoes, and not drying the feet after swimming or bathing can result in an athlete’s foot. Some symptoms include:
- Scaling of the feet
- Whitening of skin between the toes
- Itchy rash on the feet
- Blisters on the feet
- Peeling of skin
- Stinging or a burning sensation
This rash begins as dry, scaly skin between the toes. It can then spread to the heel as well.
Jock itch (Tinea cruris)
This is when ringworm affects the genital area. This form of ringworm may be hard to cure. Males are more likely to be affected by this condition. Warm weather conditions have a close association with developing a fungal infection. A groin rash in females is very rare. Symptoms of jock itch usually include:
- Itching in the groin region
- Discomfort in the groin area
- Reddish ring-like patches in the groin region
The infection does not usually involve the scrotum.
Scalp ringworm (Tinea capitis)
Scalp ringworm is highly contagious and prevalent among children. It affects the age group of 2 to 10. It is an infrequent occurrence in adults. Some common symptoms of scalp ringworm include:
- Red, scaly rash on the scalp
- Hair loss
- Rash on another area of the body
Ringworm of the scalp may progress into a kerion, a large, tender lesion over the area where the initial tinea infection appears. Ringworm scalp and body can be another presentation. This results from a hypersensitivity reaction to the ringworm and can be associated with a rash that may be present on another area of the body and tender lymph nodes in the neck region. Ringworms on the scalp often start as scaling in the scalp and progress to intense itching, and scaly bald patches can develop. Ringworm on the head can result in hair loss.
Nail infection (Tinea unguium)
This is a finger or toenail infection characterized by a thickened and deformed nail. This condition typically affects the toenails as compared to the fingernails. It occurs mainly in adults. Symptoms of nail ringworm may include:
- Yellowish color to the nails
- Thickening of the nails
Body ringworm (Tinea corporis)
This skin infection is characterized by a tinea corporis rash that resembles a ring. That can occur anywhere on the body or the face. Tinea infection on a lip, eyelid, and forehead comes under this term/category.
It can occur in any age group but is seen more often in children. It is more common in warmer climates. The symptoms of body ringworm may include:
- A red, circular lesion with raised edges
- The middle of the lesion clears or becomes less red
Ringworm of the beard(Tinea barbae)
This infection affects the cheeks, chin, and upper neck and can lead to bald patches. Some common symptoms include:
- Bald patches
- swollen lymph nodes.
This condition can be mistaken for folliculitis, acne, or another skin condition. It is best to consult a doctor for a definite diagnosis.
Ringworm of the hand( Tinea manuum)
This is usually caused by touching another affected area on your body, for example, your groin. Infection of the hand may present with the following symptoms:
- dry skin
- deep cracks on the palm
- circular patches on the back of the hand
Ringworm Risk Factors
Some factors that increase your risk of developing ringworm include:
- living in a warm and humid climate
- participating in contact sports, like wrestling
- frequent use of public showers
- excessive sweating
- wearing tight shoes
- having diabetes
- being obese
- coming in close contact with animals
- having a weakened immune system
Symptoms of ringworm do not appear immediately. It may take two weeks or more before a ring-shaped rash appears. The stages are as follows:
- Initial stage. During this stage, a discolored, rough patch of skin usually appears. The affected area can be dry and scaly. This stage is termed early ringworm.
- Second stage. During this stage, the lesion increases in size. The center of the rash can be clear, healthy skin surrounded by a scaly area. This is also known as advanced ringworm.
Since ringworm is contagious, treatment should immediately be started to prevent its spread.
Getting a ringworm diagnosis
Ringworm can be diagnosed based on a medical history and a physical exam. The lesions of ringworm can be identified easily based on a physical exam. Additionally, the doctor may use a black light to view the affected area. Some types of fungus glow under black light.
The following tests may confirm your diagnosis:
- A skin biopsy or fungal culture: A skin sample or discharge from a blister is sent to a lab for testing.
- KOH exam: A small area of the affected skin is scaped onto a slide, and drops of potassium hydroxide (KOH) solution are placed on it. The KOH helps visualize the fungus under the microscope.
Medications used to treat ringworm.
There are multiple treatment options. Ringworm of the body, jock itch, and athlete’s foot are usually treated with topical antifungal:
However, severe cases require oral medications.
Ringworm of the scalp or nails or recurring may require prescription-strength oral medications, such as terbinafine or griseofulvin.
Commonly used over-the-counter (OTC) medications and antifungal skin creams include:
How to get rid of ringworms
Some additional measures that may help prevent or cure recurring ringworm in the same place infection at home include:
- washing bedding and clothing daily
- wearing loose clothing in affected areas
- drying your skin correctly after bathing
- treating all infected areas to prevent a recurrence
Ringworm home remedies
People have tried several home remedies for ringworm for decades. Unfortunately, no proper scientific evidence backing these, but they have proven effective.
Some treatment options include:
- Coconut oil. People apply coconut oil to the affected area of the skin. Usually, coconut oil is used on the site several times a day.
- Apple cider vinegar. Cotton balls soaked in apple cider vinegar are another remedy to treat ringworm.
- Turmeric. The application of turmeric paste is used as turmeric has antifungal properties.
Ringworm essential oils
Essential oils are concentrated extracts from plants or flowers. Tea tree oil for ringworm is a popular remedy many people use to keep the infection in check. Some essentials oils people use to treat tinea infections include:
- tea tree oil
- oregano oil
- lemongrass oil
These oils often need to be diluted as with carrier oils such as coconut oil as they are concentrated.
Although anyone can get ringworm, the infection is prevalent among people who own pets such as cats and dogs, as the animals can pass it on to humans.
Ringworm in humans may have a slightly different presentation. You should look for the following signs in your pets:
- hairless circular patches of skin
- scaly patches
- whitish areas around the claws
You can develop dermatophytosis if you come in contact with fungi from prolonged water exposure or have minor skin injuries.
Using a public shower or pool makes you more susceptible to fungal infections.
Ringworm during pregnancy
If you get ringworm during pregnancy, certain medications that are safe to use include
However, the best option is to talk to your doctor before taking any medications while pregnant.
Oral medications are not usually recommended to treat fungal infections during pregnancy. You should discuss this with your doctor before using any medicines if breastfeeding.
Conditions confused with ringworm.
Ringworm vs. eczema
Ringworm can be confused with another condition known as nummular eczema.
Both conditions can present with a ring-like round lesion on the skin. These lesions are often scaly and itchy.
A person with ringworm usually has few ring-like patches compared to someone with nummular eczema. Moreover, unlike tinea infections, nummular eczema has no clearing in the center.
Furthermore, ringworm can have bumps, while nummular eczema doesn’t. If the two conditions are similar, your doctor may take skin samples to the lab for testing.
Antifungal creams don’t help treat nummular eczema, while corticosteroid creams do.
Ringworm vs. psoriasis
Psoriasis can resemble ringworm as well. Plaque psoriasis is a skin disorder due to immune dysfunction that results in plaques on your skin.
Plaque psoriasis appears as pink plaques with white scales on people with lighter skin. On darker skin, it seems as grey scales with purple patches.
Small plaques can look like lesions caused by ringworm. Both ringworm and psoriasis can cause scaling and itching.
However, ringworm usually has a circular appearance with a clearing in the middle. There is typically a single or few lesions.
Psoriasis lesions don’t have a clearing in the middle. The skin lesions are usually larger and involve more areas of your skin, such as your elbows, knees, and lower back.
If ringworm is left untreated, it can spread to other body areas. It can also be spread to other people. Some potential complications include:
- Dark marks left on your skin
- Nail deformities
- Hair loss and scarring
- Secondary infection is a result of bacteria entering broken skin
- Majocchi’s granuloma is a rare disease caused by the fungus entering deeper layers of the skin.
The complications of tinea capitis can cause permanent hair loss. Therefore to prevent such complications, it is best to consult a doctor immediately for treatment.
Having healthy habits and adopting hygienic behaviors can help prevent ringworm. Some tips to avoid it include:
- Washing your hands frequently
- Keeping your uniform clean if you play sports
- Keeping your skin clean and dry
- Changing your socks and underwear daily
- Disinfecting pet living areas
- Wearing shoes while showering or walking in public areas
- Avoid sharing personal items like clothing, towels, etc
When to Consult a Doctor
If you have ringworm symptoms, talk with our doctor at Your Doctors online for treatment recommendations. It is essential to start treatment soon to prevent a fungal infection from spreading.
FAQs on Tinea Infections Answered by Your Doctors Online Team
Ringworm can present with the following symptoms:
scaly patches that are red, brown, or grey
a round, circular pattern rash or red circle rash
raised areas of skin called plaques
patches resembling a ring with darker color on the outside
patches with well-defined and raised edges
Yes, a red circular rash caused by ringworm can lead to itching.
In healthy individuals, ringworm can disappear, but it can take a long time for symptoms to settle. Untreated infections, however, have a possibility of spreading.
Over-the-counter creams, sprays, gels, and oral medications are used to eliminate this fungal infection.
Antifungal creams or oral antifungals are prescribed to treat ringworm. The treatment varies on the severity of the infection.
It can be diagnosed based on a medical history and a physical exam. The lesions of ringworm can be identified quickly based on a physical exam. In addition, some tests, such as skin biopsy, may be done.
Commonly used over-the-counter (OTC) medications and antifungal skin creams include: