Azithromycin belongs to a class of medications known as macrolide antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria. The research found that it is associated with an increased risk of non-cardiovascular death. Hence, if you want to know its usage, precautions, and dosing information read this article till the end.
What is Azithromycin?
Azithromycin is a drug used to fight bacterial infections such as bronchitis, Pneumonia, sinuses, sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), respiratory infections, skin infections, and ear infections. It also treats disseminated Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) condition. It is from a group of medicines known as macrolide antibiotics. Capsules, tablets, and liquid forms are available on prescription. It can also be given by injection. Over the usual 5 days of therapy, individuals taking this antibiotic had a rate of cardiovascular death 2.88 times higher than those taking no antibiotic and 2.49 times higher than those taking amoxicillin.
Some of the indications for Azithromycin include:
- Azithromycin is often prescribed to treat respiratory tract infections, such as Pneumonia and sinusitis.
- Azithromycin can treat skin infections, such as cellulitis and impetigo.
- Azithromycin is sometimes used to treat sexually transmitted diseases, such as chlamydia and gonorrhea.
- Azithromycin can be used to treat certain types of ear infections, such as otitis media.
- Azithromycin can treat certain gastrointestinal infections, such as traveler’s diarrhea.
How to Use Azithromycin?
How often you take the drug depends on the following factors:
- your age
- your condition that is being treated
- the severity of your condition
- other medical conditions you may have
- your reaction to the first dose
You usually take Azithromycin once daily. Try to take medicine with the same time gap every day. You can swallow tablets and capsules with a glass of water. The capsules should be taken at least 1 hour before or after eating your food. Also, you can take your medicine with or without food. It can also be given by injection to treat severe Pneumonia or other inflammatory diseases such as pelvic inflammation. Doctors usually prescribe Azithromycin in hospital settings so that they will determine the dosage.
It must be taken during the recommended duration of treatment, even if you start to feel better, to reduce the chances of the remaining bacteria growing. Also, unnecessary use can increase your risk of getting an infection.
Azithromycin is available in different forms, such as tablets, capsules, and oral suspension. The dosing information may vary depending on the treated condition, the patient’s age and weight, and other factors. The following are general dosing guidelines for Azithromycin:
- Pneumonia: For adults, the usual dose of Azithromycin for Pneumonia is 500 mg once daily for at least two days or a more extended period if the infection is severe. For children, the dosage depends on the child’s weight and the duration of treatment. In the case of children six months or older, 10 mg/kg is given on day 1, followed by a dose of 5 mg/kg orally every other day for five days.
- Skin and soft tissue infections: For adults, the usual dose of Azithromycin for skin and soft tissue infections is 500 mg once daily for three days or a more extended period if the infection is severe. For children, the dosage depends on the child’s weight and the duration of treatment.
- Sexually transmitted infections: For the treatment of chlamydia in adults, a single dose of 1 gram of Azithromycin is usually prescribed. For the treatment of chlamydia in infants, 20 mg/kg is given orally once a day for three days.
- Ear infections: For children, the usual dose of Azithromycin for ear infections is 30 mg/kg, given in a single daily dose for three days.
- Pharyngitis or tonsillitis: For adults, the usual dose of Azithromycin is 500 milligrams (mg) on Day 1 (the first day). Next, 250 mg per day for the next five days. For Children 2 years and older, a dose of 12 milligrams per kilogram (kg) of body weight for five days is usually prescribed.
It’s important to note that dosages may vary depending on the specific condition being treated. A healthcare provider should determine the dosages and duration of treatment based on the individual patient’s needs. It’s essential always to follow your healthcare provider’s instructions carefully when using Azithromycin.
Side Effects of Azithromycin
The common side effects may include the following:
- loss of appetite
- feeling tired
Some severe side effects are rare and happen in 1 out of 100 people. These may include:
- serious allergic reactions
- blisters or peeling
- liver or gallbladder problems.
Some side effects may disappear during treatment as your body gets used to the medicine.
Use in Specific Population
Azithromycin can be used in specific populations, but dosages may need to be adjusted, or caution may be required when using the medication in these groups:
- Children: Azithromycin is approved for use in children, and it is often used to treat ear infections, strep throat, and other bacterial infections in pediatric patients. However, dosages may need to be adjusted based on the child’s weight and age, and healthcare providers may monitor children for potential side effects.
- Pregnant women: Azithromycin is generally considered safe to use during pregnancy and is sometimes prescribed to treat bacterial infections in pregnant women. However, healthcare providers may carefully weigh the potential benefits and risks of using the medication during pregnancy.
- Breastfeeding women: Azithromycin is excreted into breast milk, but it is generally considered safe to use during breastfeeding. However, healthcare providers may advise breastfeeding women to monitor their infants for potential side effects.
- Elderly patients: Elderly patients may be more likely to experience side effects from Azithromycin, such as liver problems and cardiac arrhythmias. Healthcare providers may adjust dosages or closely monitor elderly patients when using the medication.
Do not take this antibiotic without your doctor’s prescription. It is not recommended to take Azithromycin if you have had a history of allergic reactions to macrolides and ketolides.
This medicine can also increase the risk of many heart problems. Contact your healthcare provider if you have blurred vision, shortness of breath, or arrhythmia. Do not take other medicines, such as prescription or nonprescription, botanical products, or vitamin supplements, unless discussed with your healthcare provider.
- Tell your healthcare provider if you have ever had jaundice or other liver problems while taking this antibiotic. Your doctor will most probably suggest you stop taking Azithromycin.
- Tell your healthcare provider and pharmacist if you are allergic to Azithromycin, clarithromycin, dirithromycin, erythromycin, telithromycin, any other drug, or any of the ingredients used in azithromycin tablets or suspension (liquid). These antibiotics are made up of various ingredients, which you can ask your doctor.
Doctors should not prescribe medicine for the treatment of Pneumonia if a person has the following:
- cystic fibrosis
- a hospital-acquired infection
- is debilitated
- has immune system problems
Individuals should not rely on this antibiotic to treat syphilis.
In Case of an Emergency or Overdose
If you overdose on Azithromycin, you could have dangerous drug levels in your body that may cause liver damage and irregular heart rhythm. Call your doctor or local poison control center if you’ve taken too much of this antibiotic. In case of severe symptoms, call 911 or go to the nearest emergency room.
What to do if you Miss a Dose of Azithromycin?
If you have missed an azithromycin dose, take it as soon as possible. If the next dose is almost due, skip the missed one and resume your regular regimen. Do not take double doses to make up for the missed one.
What Should you avoid When you are Taking Azithromycin?
Some medicines do not mix well with Azithromycin.
You should tell your healthcare provider if you are taking any of the following medicines before taking Azithromycin:
- antacids for indigestion
- ergotamine or dihydroergotamine – for migraine
- warfarin to help prevent blood clots
- colchicine, a drug used for gout and some other inflammatory conditions
- beta-blockers for some heart issues
- nelfinavir, a medicine for HIV
- a statin medicine to lower the cholesterol level.
Azithromycin can affect your heartbeat, so it is better not to take it with other medicines.
Tell your healthcare provider if you’re taking antibiotics that can affect your heartbeat, including:
- antidepressants such as dapoxetine
- antipsychotics used to treat mental health conditions
- some anti-sickness medications, such as metoclopramide
Azithromycin does not have as many interactions as some other antibacterials. But it still can interact with several drugs. For instance, using Azithromycin while taking colchicine (a drug used for gout and other inflammatory conditions) can be life-threatening or fatal.
Some other drugs that may interact with Azithromycin are mentioned below:
- digoxin, a heart medication
- nelfinavir, medication for the treatment of HIV
- phenytoin, a seizure medication
- antacids that contain magnesium or aluminum
Azithromycin is generally considered a safe macrolide antibiotic to take with a statin, but the combination sometimes can increase the rhabdomyolysis risk. Ask your doctor how to manage this drug interaction best. Depending on your risk factors, they may suggest you temporarily lower or stop your statin dose.
Antacids are medications that are used to treat heartburn. Not all antacids interact with Azithromycin. But some antacids can affect other medicines’ absorption, making them less effective.
You should watch for antacids containing aluminum, magnesium, or calcium salts.
It is a blood thinner used to prevent blood clots. However, it is a sensitive medication. Having too much warfarin can increase the risk of easy bleeding or bruising.
Research has shown mixed results on the interaction between these two antibiotics. One small study found that taking Azithromycin with warfarin may increase people’s bleeding risk.
Before taking Azithromycin, you should tell your healthcare provider about all your current medications, supplements, and remedies. Always speak to your doctor before stopping taking any medicines.
When to Consult a Doctor?
Tell your healthcare provider if you do not feel any better after taking Azithromycin for four days to treat an infection. When taking this medicine, tell your doctor if you experience any complications or feel worse than before.
How to get a Prescription for Azithromycin?
It is a prescription drug that needs to be prescribed by a licensed prescriber or doctor. It is only available with a prescription at most pharmacies nationwide. To get a prescription for Azithromycin, you should:
- Schedule an appointment with a healthcare provider: This can be your primary care physician or telemedicine provider.
- Discuss your medical condition: Tell your healthcare provider about your symptoms and medical history. They may ask you questions about your health and perform a physical exam or order tests to confirm your diagnosis.
- Ask for Azithromycin: If your healthcare provider determines that Azithromycin is appropriate for your condition, they will likely write you a prescription.
FAQs about Azithromycin Answered by Your Doctors Online Team
It is a powerful antibiotic as it can fight many bacteria. It can also stop the growth of harmful bacteria, but it will not work for viral infections such as colds or flu.
It is usually taken once a day. It can be taken at least 1 hour before or after eating your food. Also, try to take it at the same time every day.
It can only treat infections caused by certain bacteria and can not work for the common cold, flu, or other viral infections. But macrolide, Azithromycin, is a good option for treating people with a chronic wet cough.
Azithromycin starts to work as soon as you take the first dose. Oral Azithromycin usually takes about 2 to 3 hours to reach its total concentration in your body, but the effects might not be immediately noticeable. You may start to feel recovered within a few days of taking Azithromycin.
This antibiotic can increase the risk of severe heart or blood vessel issues. Contact your healthcare provider immediately if you feel chest pain, nauseous, dizziness, fast or irregular heart rhythm, trouble breathing, or unusual tiredness or weakness.
Depending on the infection being treated, it takes approximately 3 to 10 days. You may see results within a few days of taking the medication.
Azithromycin is not penicillin. It is a type of antibiotic known as macrolide that kills bacteria. Both antibiotics work in different ways and have some differences, such as their drug interactions.
Azithromycin is effective against many bacterial infections such as sinus, ear, urinary tract infection, cervix, or genital infections. Still, it is not recommended for UTI treatment because it reaches a low urine concentration.