Benign fasciculation syndrome, how to stop muscle twitching

asciculations (muscle twitching)
Medically reviewed by Dr. Mandy Liedeman

Key takeaways

  • Benign Fasciculations occur when a single motor unit, consisting of a nerve cell and the muscle fibers it controls, fires neurons spontaneously without brain stimulation.
  • Causes include Stress, anxiety, exhaustion, drugs, neurological conditions, multiple sclerosis, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), peripheral neuropathy, weak immune system, dehydration, and lack of sleep. 
  • Treatment options include the correct diagnosis of the underlying condition, healthy lifestyle incorporation, medication for the underlying cause, and staying hydrated. 


Benign Fasciculations are involuntary contractions or twitching of small groups of muscles. They can appear in any skeletal muscle and are frequently muscle or nerve injury symptoms. 

Stress, anxiety, exhaustion, drugs, and neurological conditions, including multiple sclerosis, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), and peripheral neuropathy, are only a few causes of fasciculations. Fasciculations are often harmless and may go away on their own. But, if they continue or are mixed with additional symptoms like numbness, paralysis, or trouble speaking or swallowing, these would require a visit to the clinic.

What is benign fasciculation syndrome?

Benign fasciculations are involuntary contractions or twitching of small groups of muscles. They can appear in any skeletal muscle and are frequently muscle or nerve injury symptoms. 

The word benign depicts that these originated from a harmless cause and doesn’t describe any serious underlying neurological condition. 

Stress, anxiety, exhaustion, drugs, and neurological conditions, including multiple sclerosis, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), and peripheral neuropathy, are only a few causes of fasciculations.

Usually, the fasciculations are harmless, but if they continue or are mixed with additional symptoms like numbness, paralysis, or trouble speaking or swallowing, they would require a clinic visit.

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What is the difference between benign fasciculation syndrome and ALS?

Both the conditions Benign fasciculation syndrome and ALS (amyotrophic lateral sclerosis) can cause muscle twitching, yet both are different in terms of their nature, severity, progression, and underlying causes. 

In terms of causes, benign fasciculations are caused by the hyperexcitability of nerve cells in the muscles, while ALS is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder that progresses over time, affecting human physiology badly. 

Benign fasciculations are usually not severe alone until it is paired with numbness and paralysis.

How do benign fasciculations occur, and what are the causes?

Fasciculations occur when a single motor unit, consisting of a nerve cell and the muscle fibers it controls, fires spontaneously without brain stimulation. This can happen due to various factors, such as muscle fatigue, metabolic imbalances, or nerve damage.

Usually, the brain sends electrical signals to the motor units, which causes the muscle fibers to contract and move. However, in the case of fasciculations, the nerve cell that controls the motor unit becomes overactive, making it more likely to fire spontaneously.

When this happens, the muscle fibers controlled by the affected motor unit contract briefly and then relax, causing the characteristic twitching or rippling movement under the skin. These contractions can be seen or felt and may occur in one muscle or several muscles throughout the body.

Muscle twitching, or fasciculations, can be caused by multiple factors. Here are some common causes:

Medical conditions causing muscle twitches

Neurological Disorders

These can cause muscle twitching due to the involvement of the nervous system in muscle control. The nervous system communicates with the muscles through electrical signals that travel through nerves. Muscle twitching or fasciculations may result from neurological illnesses that injure or impair the nerves or parts of the brain that control muscle movements.

For example, in ALS (amyotrophic lateral sclerosis), a neurodegenerative disorder that affects the motor neurons in human’s the brain and spinal cord, muscle twitching is often an early symptom of the disease. In multiple sclerosis, muscle twitching can be caused by nerve damage due to the inflammation and demyelination of nerve fibers.

Similarly, in Parkinson’s disease, which affects the dopaminergic neurons in the brain, muscle twitching or tremors can be a prominent symptom. Other neurological disorders such as peripheral neuropathy, Huntington’s disease, and spinal muscular atrophy can cause muscle twitching due to nerve damage or dysfunction.

Autoimmune Diseases

When the body’s immune system unintentionally attacks healthy tissues and organs, it can cause inflammation and damage, resulting in autoimmune illnesses. Muscle twitching or fasciculations can be a symptom of certain autoimmune diseases that affect the neuromuscular system. Here are some examples:

Myasthenia gravis

This autoimmune disorder affects communication between the nerves and muscles, leading to muscle weakness and fatigue. Muscle twitching or fasciculations can be an early symptom of myasthenia gravis.


This inflammatory autoimmune disease affects the muscles, causing weakness, pain, and inflammation. Muscle twitching can also occur in some cases.


This rare autoimmune disorder affects the skin and muscles, causing rash, muscle weakness, and inflammation. Muscle twitching can be a symptom of dermatomyositis.


Systemic lupus erythematosus, an autoimmune condition, affects various organs and tissues, including the muscles (SLE). Muscle twitching, weakness, and pain may occur occasionally.

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Medications causing fasciculations

Certain medications can cause muscle twitching as a side effect. Here are some examples:


Medications that stimulate the central nervous system, such as caffeine, amphetamines, and cocaine, can cause muscle twitching or fasciculations.


Muscle twitching can occasionally occur as a side effect of tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs).


Some antipsychotic medications, such as haloperidol and chlorpromazine, can cause muscle twitching or dystonia, a movement disorder characterized by sustained muscle contractions.


Certain antibiotics, such as metronidazole and fluoroquinolones, can cause muscle twitching or fasciculations as a side effect.


Corticosteroids and cyclosporine are immune-suppressing drugs that occasionally produce muscle twitching or myoclonus, an abrupt, involuntary muscular jerk.

Some other causes


It can cause muscle twitching or fasciculations because when the body is dehydrated, the electrolyte balance in the body can become disrupted. Electrolytes are minerals in the body, such as sodium, potassium, and magnesium, that help regulate the electrical activity in the muscles and nerves. Dehydration-related electrolyte imbalances can interfere with the proper operation of the muscles and nerves, causing muscular twitching.
Dehydration can also cause muscle fatigue and cramps, further contributing to muscle twitching. In addition, when the body is dehydrated, it can produce more stress hormones, such as cortisol, which can increase muscle tension and lead to muscle twitching.

Consult with our doctors If muscle twitching persists despite hydration.

Muscle overuse

Muscle overuse can cause muscle twitching or fasciculations due to fatigue and muscle strain. When a muscle is overused or exhausted, it can cause tiny muscle fibers to contract involuntarily, leading to muscle twitching.
Muscle overuse can occur for various reasons, such as excessive exercise, repetitive movements, or prolonged sitting or standing in the same position. It can also occur due to specific occupations or hobbies that involve repetitive motions or prolonged muscle use, such as playing a musical instrument or typing on a computer.
Muscle twitching due to overuse is usually harmless and temporary, and it can often be relieved with rest and stretching. However, suppose the muscle twitching persists or is accompanied by other symptoms such as weakness, pain, or swelling. In that case, it may be a sign of an underlying injury or condition and should be evaluated by a medical professional.

Electrolyte Imbalances

Electrolyte imbalances can cause muscle twitching or fasciculations because electrolytes, such as sodium, potassium, calcium, and magnesium, play a crucial role in the normal functioning of muscles and nerves. An imbalance of electrolytes in the body can affect the electrical impulses that control muscle contraction and relaxation, leading to muscle twitching.
For example, low potassium levels, an essential electrolyte for proper muscle function, can cause muscle weakness and twitching. Low calcium levels can also cause muscle twitching, as calcium is necessary for the right nerve and muscle function.
Electrolyte imbalances can occur for various reasons, such as excessive sweating, vomiting, diarrhea, or certain medications. In addition, certain medical conditions, such as kidney disease, liver disease, or hormonal imbalances, can also affect electrolyte levels in the body.

Stress and Anxiety

Stress and anxiety can cause muscle twitching or fasciculations due to their effects on the body’s nervous system. When stressed or anxious, people produce stress hormones such as cortisol and adrenaline, increasing muscle tension and twitching.
Stress and anxiety can also lead to changes in breathing patterns, which can affect the oxygen supply to the muscles and cause them to twitch. Stress and anxiety can also lead to poor sleep quality, contributing to muscle fatigue and further exacerbating muscle twitching.

What are the symptoms of benign fasciculation syndrome?

The symptoms of fasciculations can vary depending on the cause and location of the muscle twitching.

Some common symptoms of fasciculations include:

  • Visible muscle twitching or jerking
  • The feeling of muscle twitching or twitching sensation
  • Muscle weakness or fatigue
  • Muscle cramps
  • Numbness or tingling sensations
  • Loss of coordination or balance
  • Muscle stiffness or rigidity
  • Pain or discomfort in the affected muscle or surrounding area
  • Difficulty performing delicate motor tasks
  • Difficulty swallowing (in cases of fasciculations affecting the throat or tongue muscles)
Consult our Doctors if you Experience Frequent Muscle Twitching or Other Symptoms.

How is benign fasciculation syndrome diagnosed?

Diagnosis of fasciculations can be challenging, as they can be a normal phenomenon or a symptom of a wide range of medical conditions. Here are some of the steps that may be taken to diagnose fasciculations:

Medical history and physical examination

Medical history is an essential aspect of diagnosing fasciculations. Your symptoms, medical history, and any prescription drugs or dietary supplements you may take will be discussed with your doctor. Here are some of the questions that may be asked during your medical history:

  • When did you first notice the fasciculations?
  • How often do the fasciculations occur?
  • Do the fasciculations occur in specific muscle groups, or are they widespread?
  • Are the fasciculations associated with other symptoms, such as weakness, numbness, or pain?
  • Do you currently use any new drugs or supplements?
  • Have you been exposed to any toxins or chemicals?
  • Have you recently traveled to an area where certain infections are common?
  • Do you have a family history of neurological conditions?
  • Have you ever had any medical conditions that could be related to the fasciculations, such as thyroid disease, multiple sclerosis, or ALS?
  • Do you have any other medical conditions or chronic illnesses?

Your doctor may also ask about your lifestyle habits, such as your diet, exercise routine, and stress levels, as these factors can sometimes contribute to the development of fasciculations.

A detailed and accurate medical history can help your doctor determine the underlying cause of your fasciculations and develop an appropriate treatment plan.

Physical examination is another important aspect of diagnosing fasciculations. During the physical examination, your doctor will assess your muscle strength, reflexes, and coordination. Here are some things that may be done during a physical examination for fasciculations:

Consult our Doctors If you Experience Widespread Fasciculations.

How to stop muscle twitching? treatment options for bfs?

Here are some ways to stop muscle twitching:

Addressing Underlying Causes:

The first step in stopping muscle twitching is identifying and addressing any underlying medical or lifestyle factors contributing to the problem. For example, drinking plenty of fluids and eating a balanced diet can help if your quiver is due to dehydration or electrolyte imbalances. You may benefit from stress management techniques if your twitching is due to stress or anxiety.

Medications to Reduce Twitching: 

Drugs may occasionally help curb muscular twitching. They might include benzodiazepines, muscle relaxants, and anticonvulsants. These drugs are prescription only; you should take them under a healthcare professional’s supervision because they may have adverse effects. Muscle Relaxation Techniques: Techniques such as massage, stretching, and gentle exercise can help to reduce muscle tension and twitching. Relaxation techniques such as deep breathing, yoga, or meditation can also be helpful.

Stress Management Techniques:

Stress can contribute to muscle twitching, so managing stress is essential to preventing and reducing twitching. Techniques such as mindfulness meditation, cognitive-behavioral therapy, and biofeedback can help to reduce stress and anxiety.

Good Sleep Hygiene: 

Lack of sleep can also lead to muscle twitching, so getting enough sleep and establishing good sleep hygiene can help to reduce twitching. This includes going to bed and waking up simultaneously every day, avoiding caffeine and alcohol before bedtime, and creating a relaxing bedtime routine.

Effects on Quality of Life

The effects of fasciculations on quality of life can vary depending on the severity and frequency of the symptoms. For some people, fasciculations may be mild and infrequent and have little impact on their daily life. However, fasciculations may be more severe and disruptive for others, leading to anxiety, sleep disturbances, and reduced mobility.

Increased Risk of Injury

Fasciculations can also increase the risk of injury, mainly if they affect muscles involved in balance or coordination. For example, fasciculations in the legs can increase the risk of falling, while fasciculations in the hands can affect dexterity and fine motor skills.

Psychological Effects

Fasciculations can have psychological effects, mainly if they are a source of anxiety or worry. Some people may become hypervigilant about their symptoms, constantly monitoring their body for signs of twitching, increasing pressure, and stress. In some cases, psychological counseling may help manage the psychological effects of fasciculations.

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How to Prevent benign fasciculation syndrome?

Fasciculations can be uncomfortable or bothersome for some individuals, mainly if they occur frequently or in sensitive areas of the body. By preventing fasciculations, individuals can reduce their occurrence and improve their comfort and quality of life. Here are some tips that may help avoid fasciculations:

Healthy Lifestyle Choices

Adopting a healthy lifestyle can help prevent fasciculations in several ways:

Proper nutrition

Prevent fasciculations by eating a balanced diet of vitamins, minerals, and other vital components.

Regular exercise

Regular exercise can help improve muscle function, reduce stress, and improve overall health, reducing the likelihood of fasciculations.


Staying adequately hydrated can help prevent muscle spasms and cramps, including fasciculations.

Stress management

Chronic stress can cause Fasciculations. Therefore engaging in stress-relieving practices like yoga, meditation, or deep breathing techniques might help prevent them.


Whole health depends on getting enough sleep, which can also help reduce weariness and muscular twitching, including fasciculations.

Avoiding Triggers

Avoiding triggers that can increase the likelihood of fasciculations is integral to preventing them. Here are some common triggers to avoid:


Caffeine is a stimulant that can cause muscle cramps and spasms, including fasciculations. Limit your caffeine intake by avoiding or reducing your consumption of coffee, tea, soda, and other caffeinated beverages.


Alcohol can disrupt the balance of electrolytes in the body, leading to muscle cramps, including fasciculations. Avoid alcohol totally or consume it in moderation.


Dehydration can result in fasciculations as well as muscle cramps and spasms. Keep hydrated throughout the day by consuming lots of water.


Ongoing stress can make muscles tenser and cause twitches, including fasciculations. Try stress-relieving exercises like yoga, meditation, or deep breathing.

Lack of sleep

A lack of sleep can increase fatigue and stress, leading to muscle twitches, including fasciculations. Establish a regular sleep pattern and create an environment to ensure adequate sleep each night.

Stress Management Techniques

Stress management techniques can help reduce stress levels, which can help prevent muscle twitches and spasms, including fasciculations. Here are some effective stress management techniques:

Deep breathing exercises

Deep breathing exercises can help reduce stress by calming the body and mind. Try taking slow, deep breaths through your nose and out through your mouth, focusing on your breath, and taking breaks throughout the day to practice this technique.


Meditation involves focusing on the present moment, which can help reduce stress and anxiety. There are many types of meditation, such as mindfulness, guided, and ethereal. Experiment with different types to find one that works for you.


Exercise can help reduce stress levels and improve mood by releasing endorphins in the brain. Try to engage in regular physical activity, such as walking, running, cycling, or yoga.

Time management

Poor time management can contribute to stress levels. Try to prioritize your tasks and use time management tools like calendars or to-do lists to help manage your time effectively.

Relaxation techniques

Many relaxation techniques, such as progressive muscle relaxation, visualization, or aromatherapy, can help reduce stress levels and promote peace. Experiment with different strategies to find one that works for you.

Social support

Spending time with family and friends can reduce stress and provide emotional support. Make time for social activities like dinner with friends or a movie night with the family.

Consult our doctors and get treated for muscle twitching or fasciculations.

Your Doctors Online uses high-quality and trustworthy sources to ensure content accuracy and reliability. We rely on peer-reviewed studies, academic research institutions and medical associations to provide up-to-date and evidence-based information to the users.

  1. Montalvo, Alexandre, Michael Swash, and Mamede de Carvalho. “Benign fasciculations: A follow‐up study with electrophysiological studies.” Muscle & Nerve 64.6 (2021): 670-675.
  2. Mills, Kerry R. “Characteristics of fasciculations in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and the benign fasciculation syndrome.” Brain 133.11 (2010): 3458-3469.
  3. Blexrud, Marceil D., Anthony J. Windebank, and Jasper R. Daube. “Long‐term follow‐up of 121 patients with benign fasciculations.” Annals of Neurology: Official Journal of the American Neurological Association and the Child Neurology Society 34.4 (1993): 622-625.

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